MA in Philosophy (in English)
Ibn Haldun University, Philosophy Department provides multiple and pluralistic masters program, encompassing Ancient, Islamic, Turkish and Western (Continental) philosophical traditions. Students will have the opportunity to specialize in any field of philosophy by selecting related courses. This graduate program is designed as an initial phase for the doctorate program planned to be opened in the near future. With it’s multi directional formation, the program aims to educate and give vision to candidates, enabling them to analyze Islamic philosophy not only as a historical phenomenon, but also do research in the context of contemporary philosophy. Philosophy Department enhances it’s scientific strategy accordingly.
Scope of the Program:
The program brings together theories and perspectives arising from the history of philosophy. taking into account the classical and modern depates. In this respect the program is designed to provide participants with in-depth background of history of philosophy, Islamic philosophy, Turkish thought and philosophy, Continental philosophy including phenomenologic method. Some of the research areas are:
- History of Philosophy
- Contemporary Philosophy
- Islamic Philosophy
- Turkish Philosophy
- Mystical or Sufi Philosophy
Who Should Participate?
This program may particularly be useful for:
- those who have some sort of philosophical background, but seek to increase their skills in different areas of philosophy
- those who have an interest in philosophy and want to improve the interest with a philosophical profession
- those who are just graduated from universities and look for career opportunities in different fields;
- those who want to pursue an academic career.
Program courses are lectured by academic staff having great experience in their fields, especially on master programs of philosophy. Reinforced by close links with external organizations, consultancy and research experience, many of them are experts in their respective fields and have a significant record of descent publications.
Curriculum will be added very soon.
PHIL 500 SEMINAR
The aim of this course is to widen students’ perceptive and awareness of topics of interest to philosophy through seminars offered by faculty, graduating thesis students and invited guests from academia. Each graduate student who prepares to defend her/his thesis is expected to give a seminar related to his/her thesis topic.
PHIL 501 RESEARCH METHODS AND PUBLISHING ETHICS
This course aims to provide students with methods for carrying out a scientific research such as how to pursue scientific problem, how to use materials, how to discuss findings, how to make references in a paper etc.; the students will be knowledgeable about the topics such as publishing ethics, education and ethics, ethical justification.
TURKISH AND ISLAMIC PHILOSOPHY
PHIL 510 ISLAMIC PHILOSOPHY I : ADVANCED COURSE
Islamic philosophy is one of major philosophical traditions. This course introduces theological back round, translations movements and main schools of Islamic philosophy in advanced level.
PHIL 511 THEORIES OF KNOWLEDGE IN THE FIRST CLASSICAL PERIOD
We divide Islamic thought into two periods: The period of mutaqaddimeen and mutaakhireen. The first one is both period of formation and of becoming classic. What knowledge is, source of knowledge, possibility of knowledge, truth, intuition, concept, nafs are main themes of the course. We focus on the epistemological theories of philosophers such as al- Farabi,İbn Sina, QadiAbd al-Jabbar and Bakıllani.
PHIL 512 THEORIES OF KNOWLEDGE IN THE SECOND CLASSICAL PERIOD
This course is about the second classical period of Islamic philosophy and close examination oftheories of knowledge of Juweinî, Ghazali, İbn Rushd, Fakhr al-Din al-Razi, Sayyid Sharif al- Jurjanî and Qonawî.
PHIL 513 SUHRAWARDY AND ISHRAQI PHILOSOPHY
This course focuses on philosophical characteristics of Ishraqi philosophy and its important representatives such as Suhrawardy, Molla Sadra etc.
PHIL 514 ETHICAL THEORIES IN ISLAMIC TRADITION
This course discusses ethical theories in Islamic Tradition from different branches of Islamic thought. The literature of Islamic ethical thought consists of the works belong the various disciplines such as theology (kalam), sufism and philosophy. After dealing with, the relation between ethics and religion in the context of kalam, the concept of kamâl (perfection) in the context of sufism, we focus on the philosophical theories of the figures such as Nafsani, Abu Zayd el-Balkhî ve Abu Bakr Zakariya al-Râzi (Razes), Kindi, Avicenna, Ibn Miskawayh, Tusi.
PHIL 515 MUTAZILITE THINKERS
Mu’tazila is known as the Islamic school which founds kalam (Islamic theology). It is not only important for theology, but also for Islamic philosophy in general. This course introduces the school of Mu’tazila and examines philosophical and theological theories of its leadings figures such as Wasil bin Ata, Nazzam, Jahiz and Qadi Abd al-Jabbar.
PHIL 516 FARABI
Farabi is a major Islamic philosopher. This course focuses on his logic, ethics and metaphysics. Students read selected texts from his essential works.
PHIL 517 IBN SINA
Ibn Sina is one of greatest philosophers of all time. This course focuses on his theories ranged from ethics to metaphysics. Students read selected texts from his important works.
PHIL 518 GHAZALI
Ghazali is theologian, philosopher and a great Islamic scholar; he is the most famous critic of falasifa. This course introduces both his criticism of falasifa and his theoretical contributions to various fields of philosophy and theology.
PHIL 519 TAHÂFUT TRADITION
Tahâfut is a series of works of polemic spanning to centuries after Ghazali in Islamic World. Ghazali wrote a book entitled Tahafut al-Falasifa (The Incoherence of Philosophers) in order to show that philosophers erred in metaphysical matters. The writing of tahafut continued after Ghazali. This course examines these polemical works of various writers of tahâfut such as Ghazali, Averroes, Alaaddin Tûsi and Hocazade.
PHIL 520 AVERROES AND AVERREOISM
As B. Russell said, Averroes is a new beginning for West. His ideas about metaphysics, epistemology and the relation between religion and philosophy have been very crucial for the course and development of Western thought. This course examines both his philosophy and his influence on the schools of Paris, Bologna and Padua in Europe, which played very important role in the emergence of modern philosophy.
PHIL 521 MAJOR ANDALUSIAN PHILOSOPHERS
This course introduces leading philosophers of Anadalus such as Ibn Bajja, Ibn Tufail, Ibn Rushd etc. in focusing on their essential philosophical works.
PHIL 522 IBN KHALDUN’S MUQADDIMAH
Ibn Khaldun is one of the most important philosophers of Islam, the first historical thinker of the history of philosophy and arguably the founder father of modern social sciences. This course focuses only on Ibn Khaldun’s Muqaddimah and explores his philosophical method and his theory of umran, his theory of knowledge, metaphysics, morality and his perspectives of economy in relation to his predecessors.
PHIL523 CRITICAL PHILOSOPHY IN ISLAMIC THOUGHT
This course focuses on the thinkers who had critical and negative attitude to falsafa in Islamic thought such as Ibn Taymıyya, Ibn Kayyım al Javziyya, Ghazali, Ibn Khaldun and some mystical thinkers.
PHIL 524 CONTEMPORARY ISLAMIC THOUGHT: ADVANCED COURSE
This course examines the problem of modernization – Westernization, the relationship between religion and modernization, the change in Islamic thought and the effect of this processes in Muslim societies as well as basic questions, concepts, ideas and schools in contemporary Islamic thought in relation to contemporary Turkish thought. It explores the evolving process of Islamic world from classical period in to modernity. This course examines the following thinkers: Said Halim Pasha, Babanzade, Elmalılı Hamdi Yazır, Muhammad İqbal, İzmirli İsmail Hakkı, Afgani, Musa Bigiyef, Malik Nabi, Abduh and Rashid Rida.
PHIL 525 AKBARITE SCHOOL
Akbariyyah is a sufi and philosophical school attributed to Muhyiddin Ibn Arabi, also known as The Greatest Master. Ibn Arabi, especially with his view of unity of being (wahdah al-wujoud), has been very influential in Turkish thought throughout history. This course examines metaphysical theories of Ibn Arabi, his disciple Qonevi and Davud al-Kayserî.
PHIL 526 CLASSICAL TURKISH PHILOSOPHY I: ADVANCED COURSE
This course examines the quiddity of Turkish thought, its conceptual framework, the methods for studying it, its relation to Islamic thought as well as its process of development from Seljuqs, through Ottaman Empire, to the republic period. Sadraddin Qonevi, Davud al-Kaysari, Molla Fanari, Kafiyaji, Hocazadah are the philosophers as topics of the course.
PHIL 527 CLASSICAL TURKISH PHILOSOPY II: ADVANCED COURSE
This course examines the second half of the Ottoman Turkish thought until 19. century. Kemal Pashazadah, Tashkoprizadah, Qinalizadah, Galanbawi, Haji Khalifa, Yanyali Esad Efendi, Mehmed Shirvani are the thinkers as the topics of the course.
PHIL 528 KEMALPAŞAZADE
This course focuses primarily on two Ottoman Turkish thinkers Kamalpashazade, and explores his philosophical and theological ideas.
PHIL 529 TAŞKÖPRÜZADE
Taşköprüzade is a major Ottoman Turkish philosopher, who wrote extensively on metaphysics, division of sciences and morality. This course analyzes his ideas in the context of fundamental disciplines of philosophy.
PHIL 530 CONTEMPORARY TURKISH THOUGHT: ADVANCED COURSE
This course examines the philosophical and political ideas of the Turkish thinkers from 19-20. Century at the graduate level. Said Halim Paşa, Babanzade, Elmalılı Hamdi Yazır, Şehbenderzade Filibeli Ahmed Hilmi Efendi, İzmirli İsmail Hakkı, Mehmet Akif, Cemil Meriç, Nurettin Topçu, Sezai Karakoç, İsmet Özel.
PHIL 531 EARLY TURKIC THOUGHT AND MYTHOLOGY: ADVANCED COURSE
This course examines pre-Islamic and early Islamic Turkic thought such as Tengrism, Turkic myths, toere (töre), Turkic thought of state and society and the thinkers such as Yusuf Has Hajib, Mahmud al-Kashgari, Ahmad Yasawi.
PHIL 532 METAPHYSICAL THEORIES IN THE FIRST CLASSICAL PERIOD
This course examines metaphysical theories formulated in the first classical period of Islamic philosophy in the framework of the problems such as meaning of being, the relationship between being and unity, potentiality and actuality, universals, ideas, causality, unity and multiplicity, emanation, the relationship between God and universe, nature and habit, origination and possibility, theories of creation, free will, the problem of evil. Students read selected texts from the works of Kindi, Farabi, Avicenna, Baqillani, Juweini, Qadi Abd al-Jabbar.
PHIL 533 METAPHYSICAL THEORIES IN THE SECOND CLASSICAL PERIOD
Ghazali is a cornerstone not only in kalam, but also in appropriation of heritage of muslim peripatetic philosophers such Kindi, Farabi and Ibn Sina by the later generations of thinkers. This course focuses mainly on the metaphysical theories of Ghazali, Razi, Sayyid Sharif Jurjani, on the one hand, and Ibn Rushd, Qonevi, on the other hand. The thinkers of this period discuss same problems (God, nature, essence and existence, causation, theories of creation, free will etc.), as the thinkers of first classical period. However, the theories and problems gained more specific and complex formulation in this period. Students read selected texts from Juweinî, Ghazali, Averroes, Fakhr al-Din al-Razi, Sayyid Sharif al- Jurjanî and Qonawî.
PHIL 540 EARLY GREEK PHILOSOPY
This course focuses on pre-Socratic philosophy from its beginning. The following figures are included: Thales, Anaximander, Anaximenes, Pythagaoras, Xenophanes, Heraclitus, Parmenides, Anaxagoras, Empedocles, Zeno, Melissus, Democritus and Diogenes of Apollonia. Other Greek authors such as Hippocrates, Sophocles and Thucydides will be read as a requirement of the context.
PHIL 541 PLATO’S EARLIER DIALOGUES
Plato is arguably the greatest philosopher of all time. In order to trace Plato’s development of thought, we focus on his Socratic dialogues such Apology, Crito, Laches, Lysis, Charmides, Ion, and Eutyphro.
PHIL 542 PLATO’S MIDDLE DIALOGUES
This course deals with his middle dialogues such as Meno, Phaidon, Republic, Symposium etc. Theory of forms and the problem of soul, morality, critique of art are main topics of the course.
PHIL 543 PLATO’S LATER DIALOGUES
This course focuses on Plato’s later dialogues such as Theaetetus, Sophist and Parmenides. The central problem of course is the problem of knowledge (episteme) and being.
PHIL 544 ARISTOTLE’S POSTERIOR ANALYTICS
This course focuses on Aristotle’s Posteriror Analytics. Aristotle’s other texts related to epistemology may be added to study. Aristotle is concerned with problem of knowledge and essence, which will be central themes of the course. Besides, the texts from Averroes’ commentary on Posterior Analytics are read.
PHIL 545 ARISTOTLE’S METAPHYSICS
Aristotle’ Metaphysics is one of the most influential works in the entire history of philosophy. This course gives a close reading of this monumental work.
PHIL 546 PLOTINUS
Plotinus is a Hellenistic philosopher known as the founder of neo-platonism. He influenced deeply the thinkers and philosophers from both Islamic and Christian philosophical tradition such as Farabi, Ibn Sina, Pseudo Dionysius, Erigena etc. This course focuses on his Enneads in order to explore his theory of emanation, beauty, goodness, truth etc.
PHIL 547 ETHICAL THEORIES IN ANCIENT PHILOSOPHY
Human became a central problem of philosophy through the Sophists philosophers in Ancient Greek. This course examines relativistic ethical theories of Sophists, moral realism of Sokrates, heterogeneous ethical theories of Socratic schools, Plato’s theory of ethics which is based on his understanding of tripartite soul, Aristotle’s ethics of eudemonia, and the theories of Hellenistic schools such as Sceptics, Epicureans, Stoics.
PHIL 560 MEDIEVAL CHRISTIAN PHILOSOPHY
This course examines important theologians and philosophers of medieval Christianity such as Origenes, Augustinus, Boethius, Erigena, Abelardus Aquinas, William of Ockham and discusses its central problems such as problem of universals, God, problem of evil, divine attributes, divine foreknowledge and human free will, logic.
PHIL 561 ETHICAL THEORIES IN WESTERN TRADITION
This course examines major ethical perspectives in Western tradition such as Christian ethics, cultural relativism, deontological ethics, pragmatism, utilitarianism, existential ethics etc., and the theories of main figures such as Aquinas, Hume, Kant, Mill, Rawls, Nietzsche, Sartre.
PHIL 562 DESCARTES
Descartes is known as the founder of modern philosophy. This course focuses exclusively on Descartes’ philosophy through a close reading of his important works such as Meditations on First Philosophy, Principles of Philosophy etc.
PHIL 563 LEIBNIZ
We examine the constitutive elements of metaphysics of Leibniz, his understanding of physics, his criticism of Cartesianism, his position against Locke in the context of rationalism, empiricism debates, his teaching on monads, his views on pre-established harmony, theodicy and evil, small perceptions, God, mathesis universalis and reconciliation mission.
PHIL 564 KANT
This course enables students focus on Kant’s epistemology, ethics and his criticism of metaphysics through major works such as Critique of Pure Reason, Critique of Practical Reason, Critique of Judgment etc.
PHIL 565 HEGEL AND HUSSERL IN PHENOMENOLOGY
Hegel and Husserl are two major philosophers of Western philosophy and formulated different phenomenologies. Husserl is not sympathetic to Hegel as a philosopher. However, there are some common points along with important discrepancies between their epistemological theories. This course compares their epistemological theories and explores how they developed different strategies in formulating their phenomenologies. Husserl’s Ideas and Hegel’s Phenomenology of Spirit are main texts of reading.
PHIL 566 HEGEL
This course dealt with Hegel’s system in focusing on his essential books such as Phenomenology of Spirit, Reason in History etc. in reference to the surrounding German philosophical tradition.
PHIL 567 HUME
This course deals with important themes in Hume’s philosophy such as problem of knowledge, causation, his philosophy of religion etc. Students read selected texts from his related works.
PHIL 568 HUSSERL
This course focuses on Husserl through his various works such as Logical Investigations, Ideas, On the Phenomenology of the Consciousness of Internal Time, Cartesian Meditations and Crisis of European Sciences. We analyze the selected texts from these works and examine certain issues of Husserl’s phenomenology such as temporality, inter-subjectivity and corporeality.
PHIL 569 HUSSERL’S LOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS
This course focuses primarily on Logical Investigations, which is one of Husserl’s major books. Logical Investigations has been very influential in the shaping of contemporary Continental philosophy in 20. century. The foundations of logic, the problem of knowledge, consciousness are main topics of the course.
PHIL 570 HUSSERL’S IDEAS
Ideas is characterized with Husserl’s transcendental turn. We focus on transcendental phenomenology with close reading of Husserl’s Ideas.
PHIL 571 HUSSERL’S CARTESIAN MEDITATIONS
This course focuses on reading and commenting Cartesian Meditations, which is very important for Cartesian formulation of phenomenology.
PHIL 572 HUSSERL: INNER TIME CONSCIOUSNESS
This course examines Husserl’s analysis of inner time consciousness, essential modes of consciousness such as time, perception, memory and imagination for disclosure and discussing the problems related to intentionality through phenomenological reflection.
PHIL 573 HEIDEGGER
Heidegger is one of most important philosopher of metaphysics in 20.century, who deepened Husserlian phenomenology in the context of question of being. This course analyzes the basic concepts of Heidegger’s philosophy and discusses his ideas about metaphysics, the relationship between phenomenology and ontology. Student read selected texts from Being and Time and his other important works.
PHIL 574 MARXISM AND CRITICAL THEORY
Critical Theory is a negative philosophy and one of the main philosophical tradition in Continental Philosophy. This course examines the writings of Karl Marx such as Manuscripts, the German Ideology, the Grundrisse, Capital and the important works of the leading figures of Critical Theory such as Horkheimer, Benjamin, Adorno and Habermas, who are inspired by Marx, although they are critical of him.
PHIL 575 ROUSSEAU AND PHILOSOPHY OF ENLIGHTENMENT
The critics made by Rousseau, who is one of the preeminent Enlightenment philosophers, towards the modern society structure. Rousseau’s understanding of nature and culture. His perspective on the concepts of civilization and private property. His theory of “natural man”. Influences inherited from Hobbes and Spinoza; his effect on Kant and Marx. The development of language, thought and civilization. His critics on the development of sciences and arts. The concept of inequality among mankind. His views on education. Contractualist tradition and his suggestions.
PHIL 576 GERMAN IDEALISM
German Idealist tradition is one of most influential and richest philosophical tradition in history so that some compare it to Ancient Greek philosophical tradition. This course examines the German idealists such as Kant, Fichte, Schelling and Hegel. The students read selected texts from Prologomena, Science of Knowledge, System of Transcendantal Idealism and Differenzschrift.
PHIL 577 CONTINENTAL RATIONALISTS
Rationalism and empiricism are two rival philosophical positions in Western philosophy. The former is characterized as an epistemological position attributed to the leading philosophers of the Continental Europe and the latter are characterized as an epistemological position attributed to the leading philosophers of Britain. Descartes is both the first representative of rationalism and the initiator of modern philosophy, which can be seen an attempt to answer the questions caused by Cartesian philosophy. This course focuses primarily on the epistemological and metaphysical theories of the Continental rationalist philosophers such as Descartes, Spinoza and Leibniz. Students read selected texts from the major works of these philosophers.
PHIL 578 BRITISH EMPIRICISTS
This course focuses on British empiricist philosophers such as Locke, Hume and Berkeley. We discuss certain issues such as sources of knowledge, mind, perception, the role of reason in cognition, causality, ideas, truth, and foundation of logic.
DISCIPLINES AND THEMES OF PHILOSOPHY
PHIL 580 THEORY OF KNOWLEDGE: ADVANCED COURSE
This course introduces main problems of knowledge in detail and gives close reading of the works of major philosophers from Ancient, Islamic and Western philosophical tradition.
PHIL 581 METAPHYSICS: ADVANCED COURSE
This course deals with major problem and themes such as what metaphysics is, existence, essence, God, substance, reason etc. in giving close reading of the texts from the works of major metaphysical thinkers such as Parmenides, Heraclitus, Plato, Aristotle, Ibn Sina, Heidegger etc.
PHIL 582 AESTHETICS
The course examines beauty and art works at the graduate level, and sheds light on the arts of different traditions. Students read selected texts from essential works of major philosophers such Plato, Aristotle, Plotinus, Avicenna, Kant, Hegel, Nietzsche, Hartmann, Heidegger and Adorno.
PHIL 583 PHILOSOPHY OF BIOLOGY
Philosophy of biology is a branch of philosophy of science which deals with various problems and issues raised by biology in relating biology to the issues such as causation and explanation, progress, history, reductionism. The issues are discussed in the context of ethics, epistemology and metaphysics. This course comprehensively studies philosophical matters of biological knowledge.
PHIL 584 THE PROBLEM OF “EVIL” IN THE HISTORY OF PHILOSOPHY
Can “Evil” be defined, what are the challenges, can it be thought apart from “to agathon”? Is it possible to envision the good and the evil independent of the concepts of “Algos-hedone”? “Is there an Evil in itself / Absolute evil? Where does evil fall in the distinction of Aesthesis/noesis? Is the human soul prone to evil? When considered in the context of “To on – me on” problems, does the notion of “kakon” fall under the category of ethical ground, or does it have ontological and epistemological implications? Can philosophy alone answer the question of evil, or does it have to be nourished by resources such as religion, law, art etc.?
PHIL 585 FOUNDATIONS OF DEMOCRACY
Historical Background: the State and the tripartite society structure in Ancient Greece; pre-democratic era, formation of city states, slavery system, ancient economy, loan and interest problem, Solon period and reforms, formation of assemblies, the conditions that led to the coming of Peisistratos, the Peisistratos reforms and the establishment of democracy, similarities between the historical conditions in Ancient Greece and the English Magna Carta and the French Revolution.
Philosophical Background: Can the opinion of the majority be a criterion of truth? Sokrates’ struggle with ethical relativism. Apology of Socrates and his execution. Can democracy be seen as a type of “Western ideology”? Has democracy transformed into a new “religion”? Is democracy a final form? What are its metaphysical grounds? Is a perspective possible in terms of the Heraclitus-Parmenides conflict?
PHIL 586 PHILOSOPHY OF LANGUAGE: ADVANCED COURSE
This course surveys key topics such as meaning, the relationship between meaning and truth, usage, origin and nature of language in philosophy of language at the graduate level. The course will discuss the theories from Ancient, classical Islamic and Western, especially from Analytic philosophy in which philosophy of language became central.
PHIL 587 PHILOSOPHY OF CIVILIZATION
In this course, we examine the emergence of “civilization” as an idea, the concepts of “madinah”, “madaniyyah”, “umran” and the views of Farabi and Ibn Khaldun; Roman period and concepts of “cives”, “civitas”; perception of East and West, the myth of Babylon, “Homoios” and “heteros”; rediscovery of Antiquity and Humanism after the Middle Age; the myths of Lucifer and Prometheus, the effects of enlightenment philosophy, the critiques brought by Cemil Meriç. J.-P. Sartre, F. Fanon, Edward Said in terms of colonialism and post-colonialism; the theses of the end of ideologies and the clash of civilizations, Post-modernism and its ending.
PHIL 588 PANTHEISM
Pantheism is both philosophical and religious thought. This course examines different formulations of pantheism in the history of philosophy and religion. Students read the selected texts from pantheistic philosophers and religious texts. The works of Plotinus, Ibn Arabi, Qonevi and Spinoza are comparatively examined together with the texts from Eastern thought.
PHIL 589 PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE
This course examines basic concepts and problems of philosophy of science; the quiddity and trait of science, magic, how to differentiate it from other types of knowing, the structure of scientific development; the views of leading figures of philosophy of science such as Kuhn, Feyerabend, Popper.
PHIL 590 POLITICAL PHILOSOPHY: ADVANCED COURSE
This course will initially discuss the concept of politics, political science and political philosophy. For classical political philosophy, it will focus on Plato’s and Farabi’s philosophies. This will be followed by a discussion of the state of nature, social contract and emergence of government in Hobbes, Locke and Rousseau. A separate discussion will be devoted to Ibn Khaldun’s concept of the state and politics. The course will then discuss various theories about justifying the state, namely social contract, tacit consent, hypothetical consent, Utilitarianism and Anarchism (which rejects the state). Further it will focus on the question “who should rule?”. This part will include ideas and practices of democracy, Plato’s fierce opposition to democracy, Rousseau’s concept of general will and his idea of the republic. Finally the course will discuss the concepts of liberty and freedom, the place of liberty, justifications of liberty, freedom of thought, liberalism, its critiques and Rawlsian theory of justice.
PHIL 591 MORAL PHILOSOPHY: ADVANCED COURSE
This course examines the main topics of moral philosophy at the graduate level. Students read selected texts from Ancient, Islamic and Western traditions together with contemporary issues caused by scientific and technological developments in present day.
PHIL 592 HISTORICAL SOURCES OF WESTERN THOUGHT
In this course, we trace Greek and Islamic roots of Western tradition in philosophy, literature and scientific thought. The works of Western philosophers, poets and man of letters are comparatively examined with the Muslim and Greek sources.